On Lists 01

We like the rhetorical use of lists to emphasize a mood or feeling, to extend and expand on an idea, to embellish and elaborate an emotion or idea by pleasing our mental ear with a little musical cache of words, and etc. etc.

Here’s the instance that raises this topic this AM.

From Hume’s Dialogues on Natural Religion Part X.

The following grim list is from a character in the dialogue, Philo by name, who is arguing that “society” (here, structures like government) is the source of grave woes, woes only barely less than the woes men would bring on themselves by dissolving society:

“Man is the greatest enemy of man. Oppression, injustice, contempt, contumely, violence, sedition, war, calumny, treachery, fraud; by these they mutually torment each other; and they would soon dissolve that society which they had formed, were it not for the dread of greater ills, which must attend their separation.”

Oppression, injustice, contempt, contumely, violence, sedition, war, calumny, treachery, fraud …”

Which list reminds us of Hobbes’ adjectives on the life of primitive man … next time

Meanwhile we remind ourselves to say a few words next time about contumely, a word we need but rarely hear, here in the ATL.

The Minds of Others … Visit Blog

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Because my neighborhood theatre  www.gashakespeare.org/ is doing Hamlet, we’ll make a few random observations about Hamlet in the next few weeks.

If you have not ever run up against the story of the melancholy Dane or need a refresher, here’s the setting for the first act.

Hamlet, King of Denmark and father of our hero Hamlet, has suddenly (and somewhat mysteriously) died while taking his customary afternoon nap in the orchard. His wife Gertrude so quickly marries the dead king’s brother, Claudius, that young Hamlet can complain – no doubt with some exaggeration – that the meats served at the funeral dinner could be served up cold at the marriage feast. “Thrift,” says Hamlet to his visiting friend Horatio.

Young Hamlet is more than ordinarily distressed by the sudden death of the father he loved and revered; he is outraged by his mother’s remarriage, an act he considers shamefully sudden, grossly disrespectful, and vaguely incestuous. (To what extent young Hamlet feels dispossessed of his rightful inheritance by a mother who should have spent the rest of her days in a respectful and reserved celibacy, you’ll have to work out yourself by reading the play – something which is a serious undertaking … My vote – I cannot resist – is that Hamlet doesn’t care at all about his own personal advancement. Although…)

The above-mentioned Horatio, a fellow student of Hamlet’s at the University in Wittenberg, has occupied himself meeting people at court, including some night watchmen who tell him that they have seen a ghost, the very picture of the dead King Hamlet. Horatio, himself the very modern and skeptical  late fourteenth century student, dismisses their story, but agrees to come see for himself.

Now in act 1 scene1 between lines 20 and 80 Horatio does something very ordinary: he changes his mind. Watch the simplicity with Shakespeare carries this off.  I’ll set off in bold red the lines that track the change, in blue italics the comments of others about Horatio.

Horatio and the guard Marcellus meet Barnardo who has been on watch. Here’s the text:

20    BARNARDO      Welcome Horatio, welcome good Marcellus.

MARCELLUS    What, has this thing appeared again tonight?

BARNARDO      I have seen nothing.

MARCELLUS    Horatio says ’tis but our fantasy,

And will not let belief take hold of him

Touching this dreaded sight, twice seen of us.

Therefore I have entreated him along

With us to watch the minutes of this night,

That if again this apparition come

 He may approve our eyes, and speak to it.

HORATIO         Tush, tush, ’twill not appear.

30     BARNARDO     Sit down awhile,

And let us once again assail your ears,

That are so fortified against our story,

What we two nights have seen.

HORATIO         Well, sit we down,

And let us hear Barnardo speak of this.

BARNARDO     Last night of all,

When yon same star that’s westward from the pole

Had made his course t’illumine that part of heaven

Where now it burns, Marcellus and myself,

The bell then beating one –

Enter GHOST

MARCELLUS   Peace, break thee off. Look where it comes again.

BARNARDO    In the same figure like the king that’s dead.

MARCELLUS   Thou art a scholar, speak to it, Horatio.

BARNARDO    Looks it not like the King? Mark it, Horatio.

HORATIO        Most like. It harrows me with fear and wonder.

BARNARDO    It would be spoke to.

MARCELLUS                                          Question it, Horatio.

HORATIO       What art thou that ursurp’st this time of night,

Together with that fair and warlike form

In which the majesty of buried Denmark

Did sometimes march? By heaven, I charge thee, speak.

MARCELLUS    It is offended

50      BARNARDO     See, it stalks away.

HORATIO         Stay, Speak, Speak. I charge thee speak.

Exit GHOST

MARCELLUS   Tis gone and will not answer.

BARNARDO     How now Horatio? You tremble and look pale.

Is not this something more than fantasy?

What think you on’t?

HORATIO  Before my God, I might not this believe

Without sensible and true avouch

Of mine own eyes.

MARCELLUS    Is it not like the king?

59     HORATIO  As thou art to thyself …

65 MARCELLUS  Thus twice before, and jump at this dead hour,

With martial stalk hath he gone by our watch.

HORATIO   In what particular thought to work I know not,

But in the gross and scope of mine opinion

This bodes some strange eruption to our state…